Adding new devices to a device tree

Introduction

ACPI exposes a platform-independent interface for operating systems to perform power management and other platform-level functions. Some operating systems also use ACPI to enumerate devices that are not immediately discoverable, such as those behind I2C or SPI busses (in contrast to PCI). This document discusses the way that coreboot uses the concept of a “device tree” to generate ACPI tables for usage by the operating system.

Devicetree and overridetree (if applicable)

For mainboards that are organized around a “reference board” or “baseboard” model (see src/mainboard/google/octopus or hatch for examples), there is typically a devicetree.cb file that all boards share, and any differences for a specific board (“variant”) are captured in the overridetree.cb file. Any settings changed in the overridetree take precedence over those in the main devicetree. Note, not all mainboards will have the devicetree/overridetree distinction, and may only have a devicetree.cb file. Or you can always just write the ASL (ACPI Source Language) code yourself.

Device drivers

Let’s take a look at an example entry from src/mainboard/google/hatch/variant/hatch/overridetree.cb:

device pci 15.0 on
	chip drivers/i2c/generic
		register "hid" = ""ELAN0000""
		register "desc" = ""ELAN Touchpad""
		register "irq" = "ACPI_IRQ_WAKE_EDGE_LOW(GPP_A21_IRQ)"
		register "wake" = "GPE0_DW0_21"
		device i2c 15 on end
	end
end # I2C #0

When this entry is processed during ramstage, it will create a device in the ACPI SSDT table (all devices in devicetrees end up in the SSDT table). The ACPI generation routines in coreboot actually generate the raw bytecode that represents the device’s structure, but looking at ASL code is easier to understand; see below for what the disassembled bytecode looks like:

Scope (\_SB.PCI0.I2C0)
{
    Device (D015)
    {
        Name (_HID, "ELAN0000")  // _HID: Hardware ID
        Name (_UID, Zero)  // _UID: Unique ID
        Name (_DDN, "ELAN Touchpad")  // _DDN: DOS Device Name
        Method (_STA, 0, NotSerialized)  // _STA: Status
        {
            Return (0x0F)
        }
        Name (_CRS, ResourceTemplate ()  // _CRS: Current Resource Settings
        {
            I2cSerialBusV2 (0x0015, ControllerInitiated, 400000,
                AddressingMode7Bit, "\\_SB.PCI0.I2C0",
                0x00, ResourceConsumer, , Exclusive, )
            Interrupt (ResourceConsumer, Edge, ActiveLow, ExclusiveAndWake, ,, )
            {
                0x0000002D,
            }
        })
        Name (_S0W, 0x04)  // _S0W: S0 Device Wake State
        Name (_PRW, Package (0x02)  // _PRW: Power Resources for Wake
        {
            0x15, // GPE #21
            0x03  // Sleep state S3
        })
    }
}

You can see it generates _HID, _UID, _DDN, _STA, _CRS, _S0W, and _PRW names/methods in the Device’s scope.

Utilizing a device driver

The device driver must be enabled for your build. There will be a CONFIG option in the Kconfig file in the directory that the driver is in (e.g., src/drivers/i2c/generic contains a Kconfig file; the option here is named CONFIG_DRIVERS_I2C_GENERIC). The config option will need to be added to your mainboard’s Kconfig file (e.g., src/mainboard/google/hatch/Kconfig) in order to be compiled into your build.

Diving into the above example:

Let’s take a look at how the devicetree language corresponds to the generated ASL.

First, note this:

    chip drivers/i2c/generic

This means that the device driver we’re using has a corresponding structure, located at src/drivers/i2c/generic/chip.h, named struct drivers_i2c_generic_config and it contains many properties you can specify to be included in the ACPI table.

hid

    register "hid" = ""ELAN0000""

This corresponds to *const char hid in the struct. In the ACPI ASL, it translates to:

    Name (_HID, "ELAN0000") // _HID: Hardware ID

under the device. This property is used to match the device to its driver during enumeration in the OS.

desc

    register "desc" = ""ELAN Touchpad""

corresponds to *const char desc and in ASL:

    Name (_DDN, "ELAN Touchpad") // _DDN: DOS Device Name

irq

It also adds the interrupt,

    Interrupt (ResourceConsumer, Edge, ActiveLow, ExclusiveAndWake, ,, )
    {
        0x0000002D,
    }

which comes from:

    register "irq" = "ACPI_IRQ_WAKE_EDGE_LOW(GPP_A21_IRQ)"

The GPIO pin IRQ settings control the “Edge”, “ActiveLow”, and “ExclusiveAndWake” settings seen above (edge means it is an edge-triggered interrupt as opposed to level-triggered; active low means the interrupt is triggered on a falling edge).

Note that the ACPI_IRQ_WAKE_EDGE_LOW macro informs the platform that the GPIO will be routed through SCI (ACPI’s System Control Interrupt) for use as a wake source. Also note that the IRQ names are SoC-specific, and you will need to find the names in your SoC’s header file. The ACPI_* macros are defined in src/arch/x86/include/arch/acpi_device.h.

Using a GPIO as an IRQ requires that it is configured in coreboot correctly. This is often done in a mainboard-specific file named gpio.c.

wake

The last register is:

    register "wake" = "GPE0_DW0_21"

which indicates that the method of waking the system using the touchpad will be through a GPE, #21 associated with DW0, which is set up in devicetree.cb from this example. The “21” indicates GPP_X21, where GPP_X is mapped onto DW0 elsewhere in the devicetree.

The last bit of the definition of that device includes:

    device i2c 15 on end

which means it’s an I2C device, with 7-bit address 0x15, and the device is “on”, meaning it will be exposed in the ACPI table. The PCI device that the controller is located in determines which I2C bus the device is expected to be found on. In this example, this is I2C bus 0. This also determines the ACPI “Scope” that the device names and methods will live under, in this case “_SB.PCI0.I2C0”.

Other auto-generated names

(see ACPI specification 6.3 for more details on ACPI methods)

_S0W (S0 Device Wake State)

_S0W indicates the deepest S0 sleep state this device can wake itself from, which in this case is 4, representing D3cold.

_PRW (Power Resources for Wake)

_PRW indicates the power resources and events required for wake. There are no dependent power resources, but the GPE (GPE0_DW0_21) is mentioned here (0x15), as well as the deepest sleep state supporting waking the system (3), which is S3.

_STA (Status)

The _STA method is generated automatically, and its values, 0xF, indicates the following:

Bit [0] – Set if the device is present.
Bit [1] – Set if the device is enabled and decoding its resources.
Bit [2] – Set if the device should be shown in the UI.
Bit [3] – Set if the device is functioning properly (cleared if device failed its diagnostics).

_CRS (Current resource settings)

The _CRS method is generated automatically, as the driver knows it is an I2C controller, and so specifies how to configure the controller for proper operation with the touchpad.

Name (_CRS, ResourceTemplate ()  // _CRS: Current Resource Settings
{
    I2cSerialBusV2 (0x0015, ControllerInitiated, 400000,
                    AddressingMode7Bit, "\\_SB.PCI0.I2C0",
                    0x00, ResourceConsumer, , Exclusive, )

Notes

  • All fields that are left unspecified in the devicetree are initialized to zero.
  • All devices in devicetrees end up in the SSDT table, and are generated in coreboot’s ramstage